Types of Dementia

 

Alzheimer's Disease
This is the most common kind of dementia with about 60% of people with dementia having Alzheimer's disease. Small clumps of protein, known as plaques, begin to develop around brain cells. This disrupts the normal workings of the brain.

Vascular Dementia
The damage to the brain in vascular dementia is caused by problems with blood circulation resulting in parts of the brain not receiving enough blood and oxygen.

Dementia with Lewy Bodies
A person with this kind of dementia might be a clumsy and have difficulty with their movements. This is caused by abnormal structures, known as Lewy bodies, developing inside the brain.

Frontotemporal Dementia
The frontal and temporal lobes (two parts of the brain) begin to shrink. Unlike other types of dementia, frontotemporal dementia usually develops in people who are under 65. The most common of the frontotemporal dementia types is Pick's disease. This causes problems with language, making plans and knowing how to bahave normally.

Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD)
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive neurological condition, and in its advanced stages, the disease can affect cognitive functioning.

Creutzfeldt-Jacob Dementia (CJD)
CJD is a degenerative neurological disorder, which is also known as mad cow disease. It is very rare. It causes cells in parts of the brain to die.

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)
Normal pressure hydrocephalus involves an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain's cavities.

Huntington's Disease
Huntington's disease is an inherited progressive dementia.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is really two disorders that may occur independently or together.

Wernicke's disease involves damage to multiple nerves in both the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (the rest of the body). It may also include symptoms caused by alcohol withdrawal. The cause is generally attributed to malnutrition, especially lack of vitamin B-1 (thiamine), which commonly accompanies habitual alcohol use or alcoholism.

Korsakoff syndrome, or Korsakoff psychosis, involves impairment of memory and intellect/cognitive skills such as problem solving or learning, along with multiple symptoms of nerve damage. The most distinguishing symptom is confabulation (fabrication) where the person makes up detailed, believable stories about experiences or situations to cover the gaps in the memory. Korsakoff psychosis involves damage to areas of the brain.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
MCI can be due to medical illness, medications and a host of other treatable causes.

AIDS related dementia
Some people with AIDS develop a kind of dementia because the HIV virus can damage the brain.
 
Mixed Dementia
Mixed dementia is caused by more than one medical condition.

© 2010, Scottish Dementia Clinical Research Network Hydrant